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THE HISTORY OF ENGINEERING GRAPHICS COURSE IN JAPAN

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Kiichiro Kajiyama, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka Japan

Proceedings of 3rd China-Japan Joint Conference on Graphics Education, Kunming, China, 1997 pp36-41


ABSTRACT

In 1794, technical education began at Ecole polytechnic in France. Monge and the polytechnic proposed the production system that performed a design by a drawing. The curriculum of the new design system was drawing course. 19th century beginning, the technical education of Ecole polytechnic spread through the world. In the 20th century, a college of engineering was promoted to a university. The technical knowledge was recognized as knowledge of a university. In this way, descriptive geometry subject and drawing subject became knowledge of a university.

In 1894, Meiji government established a high school that was higher educational institutions. Drawing course of the university of Tokyo was taken over to a drawing department of a high school. In 1903, the high school became a preparatory school of an imperial university. The high school excluded vocational education and special knowledge education. The lecturer taught a preparatory student engineering drawing instead of an engineering student. The drawing lecturer didn't use time of drawing for design instruction, and spent time in trace of drawing all the way. The lecturer didn't reform instruction of drawing.

Furthermore descriptive geometry became a subject of entrance examination of a university. A drawing lecturer emphasized side faces of descriptive geometry: mathematics and calculation. There wasn't the drawing lecturer describing the relation between design and descriptive geometry. In a Japanese university, there were not the department and the course which educated instructor of engineering graphics. Therefore, understanding of educational purpose of drawing course was different between drawing lecturers.


TABLE OF CONTENS
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1 INTRODUCTION

2 TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND GRAPHICS COURSE IN WEST

2.1 University and technical education
2.2 Birth of a college of engineering in France
2.3 Technical education system of Ecole polytechnic
2.4 Birth of drawing course
2.5 The spread of a college of engineering

3 EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION AND DRAWING COURSE IN JAPAN

3.1 Establishment of a college of engineering
3.2 Establishment of a high school
3.3 Engineering graphics education at an elementary school and a junior high school
3.4 University system and drawing course

4 CHANGE OF GRAPHICS INSTRUCTION OF A HIGH SCHOOL

4.1 Change of educational purpose of drawing
4.2 Change of the educational purpose of descriptive geometry
4.3 Educational background of the engineering graphics lecturer

5 CHANGE OF UNDERSTANDING OF GRAPHICS

5.1 Confusion of concept and term
5.2 Translation to Japanese of drawing and descriptive geometry
5.3 Title of graphics textbook of Meiji era

REFERENCES


1 INTRODUCTION

It is said that descriptive geometry and drawing is necessary for an engineer. There are lecturers teaching engineering graphics course at a university. Why did engineering graphics become knowledge of a university? Why did the engineer need graphics? Descriptive geometry and drawing course were born in France before 200 years. In Japan, drawing course was introduced into a school before 100 years. After 100 years, you forgot origin of graphics and a technical school, and the relation of "graphics and the school" became a historical phenomenon. You have reformed graphics, and have created new knowledge and new education. For success of your reform of graphics, you need to understand the historical phenomenon.

2 TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND GRAPHICS COURSE IN WEST

2.1 University and technical education

In the current world, an engineer who graduated from a university takes industry technique. The 18th century to the 19th century, a university didn't teach science and technology. The intellectual didn't concerning in technology and arts and crafts. A craftsman solved the technical problem in their world. The technology was handed down from a boss to an apprentice secretly.

The useful knowledge wasn't knowledge of a university. There were Thomas A. Edison, A. Carnegie and Henry Ford. The engineer who advanced the 19th century Industrial Revolution didn't have higher education. In Europe and United States, it is 1930's that an alumnus of a department of engineering works in the industrial world. [1] The model of current technical education was made in the 18th century.

2.2 Birth of a college of engineering in France

The 18th century, technical education began at a school in France. The technical bureaucracy directed public works of a nation. In the French Revolution, the technical bureaucracy became extinct. It wasn't possible for the revolution government to plan a road, a bridge, and a defense. The government had to train the new expert who directed public works. In 1794, Ecole normal and Ecole polytechnic were born. The Ecole normal educated a teacher once again. The educational core of Ecole normal was technical education for the production.

Gaspard Monge (1746-1818) schemed that a school was put together theory and practice in technical education. A technical subject included mathematics, descriptive geometry, physics, and chemistry. [2] In 1795, the lecture of Monge of Ecole normal was published as "Descriptive Geometry". In 1795, Monge shifted to Ecole polytechnic. This polytechnic brought up a leader and a technical bureaucracy who took public works. Monge made a model of technical education system. In 1797, he becomes a principal. To the 20th century beginning, this school brought up many scientists, and became the center of European science.

2.3 Technical education system of Ecole polytechnic

Early stage, Ecole polytechnic educated for 2 years. After having graduated, a student entered the technical college: Ecole application of public services. The college educated military affairs, engineering works, shipbuilding, a machine, a mine, and an engineer of a map. [3] To educate the engineer of this field, Monge understood "analysis and design" as foundations of technical education. The student learned analysis theory and drawing course other than special technical instruction. The student learned what a natural phenomenon could explain by a theory of science. Ecole polytechnic selected mathematics, mechanics, physics, chemistry, chemistry experiment, mineralogy, and descriptive geometry as foundation theory of analysis. [4] The polytechnic performed an experiment and practical training in addition to a lecture.

2.4 Birth of drawing course

It is common sense currently to design through a drawing. The 18th century, Monge and the polytechnic proposed the production system that performed a design by a drawing. The craftsman of the 18th century used a drawing and drew sketching or real figure of an object. To design three-dimensional object, the craftsman made a model or processed real materials. Against design system of a craftsman, Monge proposed the new design system that produced an object by drawing. The curriculum of the new design system was "drawing course".

Descriptive geometry was taught as a theory to represent a three-dimensional object in a two-dimensional drawing exactly. And descriptive geometry was taught as a theory to analyze a three-dimensional object on a two-dimensional drawing. Descriptive geometry of Monge contained knowledge of wood processing, building stones processing and mechanics. In Ecole polytechnic, drawing course was an important subject, and the student spent many times on practical training of drawing.

2.5 The spread of a college of engineering

The system of technical education of Ecole polytechnic was introduced at first in military academy of other countries. The 19th century beginning, the system of Ecole polytechnic spread through the world. Polytechnic was established in a European country. In 1821, Germany government established a polytechnic, Gewerbe Akademie. In 1862, United States government established a technical school by Morrill Act to each state. These schools were called agricultural school or technical college. In United Kingdom, the polytechnic wasn't established to the 19th century half.

The technical knowledge was different from knowledge of a university completely at first. In the 20th century, a college of engineering was promoted to a university. The technical knowledge was recognized as knowledge of a university. In this way, descriptive geometry subject and drawing subject became knowledge of a university. Descriptive geometry became authority as a higher educational subject.

3 EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION AND DRAWING COURSE IN JAPAN [5]

Meiji government established the drawing course in the educational system, and maintained it until 1990's.

3.1 Establishment of a college of engineering

In 1877, the government established two high educational institutions: the university of Tokyo and Imperial College of Engineering 'Koubu daigakuko'. The model of this college was a polytechnic of Switzerland. [6] Drawing course was made in these two high educational institutions. In 1886, the government recognized Imperial College of Engineering as a university. The Imperial College of Engineering became the faculty of the university of Tokyo.

3.2 Establishment of a high school

In 1894, Meiji government established a high school that was higher educational institutions except a university. The high school was the college that had a preparatory course of an imperial university and a course of high technical education. The educational period of a high school was 7 years. The high school had a medical department and an engineering department as technical course. Drawing course of the university of Tokyo was taken over to a drawing department of a high school. At a university, design drawing of specialty was taught. After the latter period of Meiji era, expert education disappeared in the high school. The high school changed in preparatory course to enter an imperial university. This high school system continued it until 1947.

3.3 Engineering graphics education at an elementary school and a junior high school

In Meiji era, drawing course was taught at each stage of education: elementary, secondary, higher educational institutions. Meiji government regarded drawing as a subject of important technical education. In 1899, the government serviced a junior high school. Instrumental drawing was taught at the junior high school. At an elementary school, freehand drawing was taught. It was thought that the correct representation of still life and landscape was fundamental education of drawing.

3.4 University system and drawing course

In 1918, the government recognized every higher educational institutions as a university. In 1947, the government established a new university system. In 1949, a high school of old system and a specialty college gathered and were promoted to a university. The drawing department of a high school remained as a department of engineering graphics in a new-system university. In 1990's, the government abolished a system of a department of liberal arts and sciences of a national university. The government didn't guarantee the engineering graphics subject taught with the department of liberal arts and sciences.

4 CHANGE OF GRAPHICS INSTRUCTION OF A HIGH SCHOOL

There was a drawing department 'Zuga-ka' in a high school, and there were full-time professors. The high school had a medical department and an engineering department as technical courses. The drawing department was planned at first as drawing course of an engineering department. Drawing course was the following contents: free hand drawing and instrumental drawing and geometry and descriptive geometry and practice of machine drawing.

In 1903, Meiji government divided a medical department and an engineering department from a high school, and made a medical college and a college of engineering. The high school became a preparatory school of an imperial university. The high school excluded vocational education and special knowledge education. But the drawing department remained in the high school.

4.1 Change of educational purpose of drawing

A lecturer of drawing department taught a preparatory student engineering drawing instead of a student of a college of engineering. In the college of engineering, design drawing of specialty was taught. The drawing lecturer of a high school didn't teach design, and taught foundations of drawing.

The number of class hours (a week) of drawing in 1889 was 2 hours (the first year), 3 hours (the second year) and 10 hours (the third year). In 1919, the class hours of practical training of drawing was reduced. The number of class hours (a week) was 2 hours (the first year), 3 hours (the second year) and 2 hours (the third year). [7] But half of the number of class hours for 3 years was practical training of drawing. The drawing lecturer didn't use time of drawing for design instruction, and spent time in trace of a drawing all the way. The lecturer didn't reform instruction of drawing.

4.2 Change of the educational purpose of descriptive geometry

Furthermore descriptive geometry of drawing course became a subject of entrance examination of a university. Descriptive geometry became knowledge guaranteed by the government. I thought that the instruction of descriptive geometry assumed an air of liberal arts from this time. A drawing lecturer emphasized side faces of mathematics and calculation of descriptive geometry. The lecturer emphasized discourse and imagination of space for a purpose of descriptive geometry. The lecturer insisted that descriptive geometry was a subject separate from drawing. There wasn't the drawing lecturer describing the relation between design and descriptive geometry in a textbook. The government guaranteed the number of class hours of drawing course, and it was taken over to a university under the new system.

4.3 Educational background of the engineering graphics lecturer

At a Japanese university, there were not the department and the course which educated instructor of engineering graphics. Most of drawing lecturer studied knowledge of drawing and the instruction method of drawing after having got job of the drawing lecturer. Therefore, understanding of educational purpose of drawing course was different between drawing lecturers. And it is said that a researcher of engineering graphics didn't grow up. [8] It is 1967 that the Japan Society for Graphic Science established.

At the university of Tokyo, Imperial College of Engineering, the Institute of fine art school and Military science school, foreigners taught drawing course. After foreign lecturers left Japan, Japanese lecturers taught drawing course. As for a career of Japanese lecturer, there were two types at first. A lecturer studied drawing course as an assistant of a foreigner. On the other hand a lecturer studied abroad, but didn't major in drawing course. Afterwards, an alumnus of architecture department, shipbuilding department, and mechanical engineering department became drawing instructor of a high school.

5 CHANGE OF UNDERSTANDING OF GRAPHICS

5.1 Confusion of concept and term

In the last of Edo period, graphics was introduced as drawing in Japan. Drawing of this time meant technical line-drawings and scientific paintings: industry drawings, instrumental drawings, zoological paintings, and botanical paintings. Drawing and painting didn't mean fine art and art education. [9]

From the last period of Edo, a term of drawing and descriptive geometry was confused. This history let it confuse that current lecturers understood drawing course. In early stage, the term of Zuga '}‰æ', Zugaku '}Šw', Gagaku '‰æŠw' and Youkiga '—pŠí‰æ' meant descriptive geometry and drawing. Now, the term of Zuga means fine art. The term of drawing uses Seizu '»}'. Design drawing isn't included in Seizu of drawing course. The term of Zugaku means descriptive geometry or engineering graphics, and don't mean drawing. Many lecturers think that descriptive geometry isn't included in drawing. The current relation between drawing and descriptive geometry became ambiguous.

5.2 Translation to Japanese of drawing and descriptive geometry

In a document of instruction in 1858, a term of Syokidogaku was used as translation of descriptive geometry. A term of Zugaku was used as translation of drawing. [10] In 1864, a term of Gagaku was drawing. [11]

In a curriculum of Imperial College of Engineering in 1874, Zuga was a subject name of drawing course. In 1885, the subject of drawing was changed in a name of Zugaku. The content of the subject was freehand drawing, practical plain geometry, practical solid geometry and perspective drawing. [12]

In a curriculum of Tokyo Kaisei Gatukou in 1876, Gagaku was subject name of drawing. The contents were divided into free hand drawing and instrumental drawing. A student learned perspective drawing and mechanical drawing afterwards. The student went to a specialty of engineering department, and he learned graphic calculation, instrument drawing, design drawing, and practical training of multiplication. [13] Tokyo Kaisei Gatukou was promoted to the university of Tokyo. In a curriculum of the university of Tokyo in 1877, freshman learned descriptive geometry with a name of Gagaku. Sophomore and junior learned a subject of machine drawing. [14]

5.3 Title of graphics textbook of Meiji era

In a military science school, a name of Zugaku was used for a textbook of drawing course. Zugaku was used for the name of the textbook that used in a high school afterwards. [15, 16] A name of Youkiga was used in the secondary education. At a current university, Zugaku is the subject of descriptive geometry and Seizu is the subject of engineering drawing. Seizu doesn't mean design drawing.

REFERENCES

1. ‘ºã—zˆê˜YAV‚µ‚¢‰ÈŠwŽj‚ÌŒ©•ûA“ú–{•ú‘—o”Å‹¦‰ïA1997A78.
2. P.J. Booker, A History of Engineering Drawing, Chatto & Windus, London, 1963: Œ´³•q–óA‚Ý‚·‚¸‘–[A1967A107.
3. ŽOŽ}”Ž‰¹A‹Zp‚Ì“NŠwAŠâ”g‘S‘A1951A95-101.
4. ŽOŽ}”Ž‰¹A‹Zp‚Ì“NŠwAŠâ”g‘S‘A1951A95-98.
5. Œ»‘㋳ˆçŠwŽ–“TA˜J“­{•ñŽÐA1988.
6. Masatoshi Hara, Introduction of the Education of Descriptive geometry and Engineering Drawing in the Later Tokugawa Regime and Early Meiji Period, Journal of History of Science, Japan, series II Vol. 14, No. 115 (1975), 109.
7. Œ´³•qA–¾Ž¡Šú‚̐}Šw‹³ˆçA“ú–{}Šw‰ï‹ãBŽx•”A1991A87.
8. Œ´³•qA}“I•\Œ»‚Ì—ðŽjA}Œ`‰ÈŠwƒnƒ“ƒhƒuƒbƒNA“ú–{}Šw‰ï•ÒA1980A10.
9. Œ»‘㋳ˆçŠwŽ–“TA˜J“­{•ñŽÐA1988.
10. Masatoshi Hara, Introduction of the Education of Descriptive geometry and Engineering Drawing in the Later Tokugawa Regime and Early Meiji Period, Journal of History of Science, Japan, series II Vol. 14, No. 115 (1975), 106.
11. Masatoshi Hara, Introduction of the Education of Descriptive geometry and Engineering Drawing in the Later Tokugawa Regime and Early Meiji Period, Journal of History of Science, Japan, series II Vol. 14, No. 115 (1975), 105.
12. Masatoshi Hara, Education of Graphic Science in Late Nineteen Century Japan (II), Journal of Graphic Science of Japan, No. 8 (1971), 28-29.
13. Masatoshi Hara, Education of Graphic Science in Late Nineteen Century Japan (I), Journal of Graphic Science of Japan, No. 7 (1970), 38-44.
14. Masatoshi Hara, Education of Graphic Science in Late Nineteen Century Japan (I), Journal of Graphic Science of Japan, No. 7 (1970), 41-42.
15. Mutsuo Chiba, On the Translation into Japanese of "projection", Journal of Graphic Science of Japan, No. 20 (1977), 41-46.
16. The Sub-Committee on Terminology of Graphic Science, A Report of the Committee (I), Journal of Graphic Science of Japan, No. 14 (1974), 50.


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